198 At the federal level, there are a number of civilian intelligence agencies with nationwide jurisdictions including the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA Intelligence Bureau (IB and the Motorway Patrol, as well as several paramilitary forces such as the National. Pakistan now has a large network of domestic, privately owned 24-hour news media and television channels. 205 The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. In the 1971 conflict over East Pakistan the Jamaat-e-Islami fought the Bengali nationalists on the Pakistan Army's side. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan. 512 At the time 1 bitcoin in gbp 2012 of Pakistan 's creation the 'hostage theory' gained currency. 64 620 Sohan halwa is a popular sweet dish from the southern region of Punjab province and is enjoyed all over Pakistan. In October 2006, just one year after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan " in order to help the country's tourism industry. 394 Industry Main article: Industry of Pakistan See also: Textile industry in Pakistan Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for.3 of gross domestic product (GDP and 13 percent of total employment. 613 The arrival of Islam in what is today Pakistan meant the sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the area and a smooth transition to the predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture.
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Both countries signed a Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues to serve as China's communication bridge to the Muslim world. 368 Pakistan has an estimated 40 million middle class citizens, projected to increase to 100 million by 2050. 82 These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (9751187 CE the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (12061526 CE). 87 Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s. The 1960s saw the emergence of an active space program led by suparco that produced advances in domestic rocketry, electronics, and aeronomy. 209 The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country's varied climate. The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan 's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State. 344 345 According to sipri, Pakistan was the 9th largest recipient and importer of arms between 20122016. 149 150 Pakistan 's North-West Frontier Province became a base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters, with the province's influential Deobandi ulama playing a significant role in encouraging and organising the 'jihad'. Executive: The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the majority rule party or a coalition in the National Assembly the lower house. Under its Nuclear Energy Vision 2050, the Pakistani government plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity to 40,000 MWe, 418 8,900 MWe of it by 2030. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan, which provides all its citizens the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order, and morality. 372 373 Pakistan 's economic growth since its inception has been varied.
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In 2016 Pakistan 's fertility rate was estimated to.68, 498 higher than its neighbour India (2.45). In 1961, the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border. Retrieved 27 February 2016. 605 Ideas from British and American philosophy greatly shaped philosophical development in Pakistan. 12008, city dwellers made up 36 of Pakistan 's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia, which increased to 38 by 2013. 86 By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture. 557 Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are mostly concentrated in Sindh. Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life. 363 The estimated nominal per capita GDP is US 1,561, 364 the GDP (PPP capita is US 5,010 ( international dollars 365 and the debt-to-GDP ratio.50. 366 According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potential.
Among the rare animals found in the area pakistan forex are the snow leopard 217 and the blind Indus river dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem. 454 He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving as both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects. The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan. A b "Part I: "Introductory". Hub, Balochistan 1,970 Energy K-Electric Karachi 1,840 Energy Attock Refinery Rawalpindi 1,740 Oil refinery Attock Petroleum Rawalpindi 1,740 Petroleum Lahore Electric Supply. 224 225 Its geostrategic intentions were explained by Jinnah in a broadcast message in 1947, which is featured in a prominent"tion on the homepage of Pakistan 's Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: "The foundation of our foreign policy. The increasing proportion of Pakistan 's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment. Federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia. 90 In World War II, Jinnah and British-educated founding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed 's vision. A b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". This was confirmed in a statement by India's Defense Minister, Krishna Menon, who said: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive." 307 Pakistan claims that its position.
Foreign Exchange (Forex) Open Market Rates of Pakistan
Gujarati community leaders in Pakistan claim that there are 3 million Gujarati speakers in Karachi. 184 In 1977, after taking power from Bhutto in a coup d'état, General Zia-ul-Haq, who came from a religious background, 185 committed himself to establishing an Islamic state and enforcing sharia law. The basic family unit is the extended family, 572 although for socio-economic reasons there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families. Pakistan 's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the 1970s when the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) was formed. Shortly after the creation pakistan forex of Pakistan in 1947, the Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) was created, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah became its first Patron-in-Chief. 500 By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world. 206 Flora and fauna Main articles: Flora of Pakistan and Fauna of Pakistan The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. Tries its level best to provide you accurate forex rates from various authentic sources. The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. A b c d Yasmeen Niaz Mohiuddin (2006). Retrieved "SC orders immediate implementation of Urdu as official language". 265 In return, China is Pakistan 's largest trading partner, and economic co-operation has flourished, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistan 's infrastructural expansion such as the Pakistani deep-water port at Gwadar. India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and, china in the far northeast.
State Bank of Pakistan
287 Administrative divisions Main articles: Administrative units of Pakistan and Districts of Pakistan Administrative Division Capital Population Balochistan Quetta 12,344,408 Punjab Lahore 110,012,442 Sindh Karachi 47,886,051 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar 40,525,047 Gilgit-Baltistan Gilgit 1,800,000 Azad Kashmir Muzaffarabad 4,567,982 Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad. 15 The first constitution was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958, who replaced it with the second constitution in 1962. 623 Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country. United Nations Development Programme. "South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership". The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education. 594 The term Overseas Pakistani is officially recognised by the Government of Pakistan. Democratic rule resumed from 1972 to 1977an era of self- consciousness, intellectual leftism, nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction. 517 Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese ( Rohingya ) to Pakistan started in the 1980s and continued until 1998. 204 The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the Thar Desert in the east. 90 In contrast to the Indian National Congress 's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan 's future civil society.
35 36 It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, 37 38 and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class. Since the 2000s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing, and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing. 222 223 With a semi-agricultural and semi-industrialized economy, its foreign policy determines its standard of interactions for its organisations, corporations, and individual citizens. 520 Thousands of Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang, China. 399 Services Main articles: Real estate in Pakistan, Information technology in Pakistan, and Banking in Pakistan Clifton Beach in Karachi, with under-construction skyscrapers in the background. Around 668 bird species are found there, 210 211 including crows, sparrows, mynas, hawks, falcons, and eagles. 340 3 the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan, mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions. Retrieved 28 December 2011. 536 537 The majority of them are Sunni (estimated between 75 and 95) while Shias represent between 520.
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It has since recognised the importance of overseas Pakistanis and their contribution to the nation's economy. The country's tourist destinations range from the Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Taxila, to the 5,000-year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Pakistan is a strong ally of China, with both countries placing considerable importance on the maintenance of an extremely close and supportive special relationship. The current growth rate and employment trend indicate that Pakistan 's Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry will exceed the 10-billion mark by 2020. 99 A complete and comprehensive constitution was adopted in 1973it was suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE, 610 an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day. CNY.5.65 Danish Krone DKK.3 Euro EUR 162.5 164 Hong Kong Dollar HKD.95.2 Indian Rupee INR.96.03 Japanese Yen JPY.27.3 Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 463.5 466 Malaysian Ringgit MYR.75.1 NewZealand. 625 626 The cricket team (known as Shaheen ) won the Cricket World Cup held in 1992 ; it was runner-up once, in 1999. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque 's compound. 557 As of 2010, Pakistan had the fifth-largest Hindu population in the world. Pakistan : a global studies handbook. 126 Meanwhile, Pakistan 's founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general of the party, the nation's first Prime Minister. "Jinnah and the Making of Pakistan ".
It accounts for.5 of employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. 604 Historically, philosophical development in the country was dominated by Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Syed, Muhammad Asad, Maududi, and Mohammad Ali Johar. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country (for example, the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman. 136 137 Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan. " Pakistan and Saudi Arabia : Towards Greater Independence in their Afghan Foreign Policy?" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2015. Saraiki, mainly spoken in South Punjab and Hindko, is predominant in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the saarc and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition. Open market forex rates, updated at: 16/5/2019 3:20 PM (PST). 103 As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in 194647.